Properties of Water

Water can be found in three phases: solid, liquid, gas. Water can also change from any one of these phases into another. This process of transformation and movement is known as the water cycle.
Transpiration: water leaves plants as a gas
Transpiration: water leaves plants as a gas
Precipitation: water falling to the Earth
Precipitation: water falling to the Earth

The water cycle
The water cycle


Condensation: gas into a liquid
Condensation: gas into a liquid
Sublimation: solid to a gas
Sublimation: solid to a gas


Evaporation: liquid into a gas
Evaporation: liquid into a gas




Water expands and becomes less dense as it freezes.
Animals can live under the ice because it floats instead of sinking to the bottom
Animals can live under the ice because it floats instead of sinking to the bottom
This is why water in its solid form can float on top of water in its liquid form as opposed to most other solids. Water not only is special when it freezes but when it is heating up as well. Water has an unusually high specific heat or the measure of how well a substance resists changing in its temperature.









Water on top of a penny
Water on top of a penny
Water has a high surface tension (measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break surface of a liquid) allowing many things to float on top and giving water the ability to "stick" to itself. This is because the hydrogen in water is attracted to one another creating a temporarily sturdy bond. This property of water to hold itself together is called cohesion. Water molecules can also pull others along with it which allows the molecules to travel upwards in the root of plants. This ability of water to cling to one substance or another is called adhesion.







Macromolecules


polymer.jpg
Polymers

Most macromolecules are polymers which are long molecule chains. Monomers are smaller molecules that make up these polymer chains. Monomers are connected by a covalent bond through the process of losing a water molecule known as condensation reaction, or more commonly, dehydration reaction. Polymers can be broken back down into monomers by hydrolysis. The monomers break when water molecules are added. For example, digestion uses hydrolysis with the help of enzymes to speed the reaction and break down the organic material in food so these parts are small enough to be absorbed into the bloodstream. Once transported to the appropriate cell, the cell can take the monomers and reform them into something different than the original polymer.








carbohydrate.jpg
Carbohydrate (a monosaccharide aka glucose)
Carbohydrates are polymers that includes sugar. There are three types of carbohydrates: monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides are the simplest sugars. Disaccharides consist of monosaccharides bonded together by a dehydration reaction. The joint between these two is known as a glycosidic linkage. Polysaccharides are macromolecules that are made up of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides. These polymers are used for storage or for structure. Starch (plants) and glycogen (animals) are most commonly used for storage. Cellulose (cell wall in plants) and chitin (found in exoskeletons of arthropods and in cell walls of fungi) are most likely to be used to strengthen a structure for protection.





Lipids are not considered polymers because the bonds between the lipids occurs because they have little or no affinity for water. Fats are made up of fatty acids and glycerol. These non-polymers can store large amounts of energy. Fats can be a saturated fatty acid meaning there is hydrogen present and and unsaturated fatty acid bond through the removal of hydrogen. Phospholipids are similar to fatty acids and are a major material making up the cell membrane. Steroids are cholesterol and some types of hormones. Cholesterol is common in animal cell membranes and also produce hormones including the sex hormones.
ls.jpg
Lipid




Proteins are important for just about every function in a cell. they are used for structural support, storage, transport, signaling from one part to another, movement, and defense. A protein is made of one or more polypeptides which is a polymer of amino acids. Amino acids are organic molecules that have carboxyl and amino groups. The function of a protein depends on its structure. The primary structure is the unique sequence of amino acids. The secondary structure is the folding of the polypeptide chains. The tertiary structure is the pattern that the secondary structure forms. The Quaternary structure is the overall pattern and formation of the protein.
proteins.jpg
Proteins



Nucleic Acids store and transmit hereditary information. The two types of nucleic acids are DNA and RNA. DNA is the genetic material that an organism receives from their parents. It has the information encoded in itself that maps out the organism in every aspect. RNA controls protein synthesis. Nucleic acid polymers are made up of nucleotides. Which has a nitrogen base, a five carbon sugar, and a phosphate group. The four nucleotides are called pyrimidines and purines. The pyrimidine cytosine pairs with purine guanine and pyrimidine thymine and uracil pair with the purine adenine.
dna.gif
DNA